The author is professor of biology, University of California, Santa Barbara. This article is based on a presidential address presented before the meeting of the Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Utah State University, Logan, 25 June At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, Wiesner and York 1 concluded that: It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution.
The resulting antibiotic resistance has spread and will likely continue to do so in the future to other bacteria and other regions, hurting or destroying the Antibiotic Commons that is shared on a worldwide basis  Publicly shared resources Spam email degrades the usefulness of the email system and increases the cost for all users of the Internet while providing a benefit to only a tiny number of individuals.
Vandalism and littering in public spaces such as parksrecreation areasand public restrooms.
Knowledge commons encompass immaterial and collectively owned goods in the information age. Including, for example, source code and software documentation in software projects that can get "polluted" with messy code or inaccurate information.
The idea of evolutionary suicidewhere adaptation at the level of the individual causes the whole species or population to be driven extinctcan be seen as an extreme form of an evolutionary tragedy of the commons. Commons dilemma researchers have studied conditions under which groups and communities are likely to under- or over-harvest common resources in both the laboratory and field.
Research programs have concentrated on a number of motivational, strategic, and structural factors that might be conducive to management of commons.
They organize these classes and distinguish between psychological individual differences stable personality traits and situational factors the environment.
Situational factors include both the task social and decision structure and the perception of the task. One often-studied strategic factor is the order in which people take harvests from the resource. There is a clear order effect in the latter games: The interpretation of this effect is that the first players feel entitled to take more.
With sequential play, individuals adopt a first come-first served rule, whereas with simultaneous play people may adopt an equality rule.
Another strategic factor is the ability to build up reputations. Moreover, those who harvest less gain greater prestige and influence within their group. Structural factors[ edit ] Much research has focused on when and why people would like to structurally rearrange the commons to prevent a tragedy.
Hardin stated in his analysis of the tragedy of the commons that "Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all.
Groups are more likely to endorse a leader when a common resource is being depleted and when managing a common resource is perceived as a difficult task. Groups prefer leaders who are elected, democratic, and prototypical of the group, and these leader types are more successful in enforcing cooperation.
A general aversion to autocratic leadership exists, although it may be an effective solution, possibly because of the fear of power abuse and corruption.
The provision of rewards and punishments may also be effective in preserving common resources. Selective rewards work, provided that they are open to everyone.The tragedy of the commons is a term used in social science to describe a situation in a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling that resource through their collective action.
The concept and phrase originated in an essay written in by the British. Americans are glum at the moment. No, I mean really glum. In April, a new poll revealed that 81 percent of the American people believe that the country is on the "wrong track.".
An American Tragedy: Essay Q&A, Free Study Guides and book notes including comprehensive chapter analysis, complete summary analysis, author biography information, character profiles, theme analysis, metaphor analysis, and top ten quotes on classic literature.
Further Study. Test your knowledge of The American with our quizzes and study questions, or go further with essays on the context and background and links to the best resources around the web. An American Tragedy Essays: Over , An American Tragedy Essays, An American Tragedy Term Papers, An American Tragedy Research Paper, Book Reports.
ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access. Othello (The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in It is based on the story Un Capitano Moro ("A Moorish Captain") by Cinthio, a disciple of Boccaccio, first published in The story revolves around its two central characters: Othello, a Moorish general in the Venetian army and his unfaithful ensign, Iago.