Nicholas Black Black 1 Nicholas M. The Beginnings of Critical Thought Directed at post-Civil War Reconstruction and Manifest Destiny Before attempting a critical review or analysis of any portion of history it is paramount to first establish and explore what cultural biases may be affecting the author or researchers historical perspective.
Trail choices[ edit ] Travelers across what became the Western United States in the 19th century had the choice of several routes. Some of the earliest were those of the Mexicans in the southwest. Louis and Santa Fe following an 18th-century route pioneered by the Spanish Empire.
During the twenty-five years —,topeople "pulled up stakes," and headed west along these trails. About one-third immigrated to Oregon, one-third to California and one-third to Utah, Colorado, and Montana.
Although it is often stated that the Northern trails began in certain cities on the Missouri Riveremigrants following any of the three trails typically left from one of three "jumping off" points on the Missouri's steamboat serviced river ports: Once known as Kanesville, Iowa until ; after river dredging in the early s, the latter town at the Missouri-Platte confluence became the most common departure point since it was close in proximity to the River Platte—along which the eastern trails ascend to South Pass above Fort Laramie.
The trails from these cities and several others converged in the mostly empty flatlands of central Nebraska near present-day Kearneyin the vicinity of Fort Kearney. From their confluence there the combined trails followed in succession the PlatteNorth Platteand Sweetwater rivers westward across the full widths of Nebraska and Wyomingand crossed the continental divide south of the Wind River Range through South Pass in southwestern Wyoming.
The most common vehicle for Oregon and California-bound settlers was a covered wagon pulled by a team of oxen or mules which were greatly preferred for their endurance and strength over horses in the dry semi-arid terrain common to the high plains in the heat of summer.
History of the United States Expansion () During the early 's, settlers moved westward over the Appalachian Mountains into the new states and territories. Many of these pioneers even settled beyond the country's western boundary. A link to the Library of Congress digital file for John Gast's painting of Lady Liberty leading Americans westward. It would be a wonderful study of the American viewpoint of westward expansion and Manifest Destiny. The American Revolution had both long-term origins and short-term causes. In this section, we will look broadly at some of the long-term political, intellectual, cultural, and economic developments in the eighteenth century that set the context for the crisis of the s and s.
In later years, following the advice of Brigham Young, many Mormon emigrants made the crossing to Utah with handcarts. For all emigrants, the scarcity of potable water and fuel for fires was a common brutal challenge on the trip, which was exacerbated by the wide ranging temperature changes common to the mountain highlands and high plains where a daylight reading in the eighties or nineties can drop precipitously to a frigid seeming nighttime temperature in the low 40s.
In many treeless areas, buffalo chips were the most common source of fuel. It crossed what was then the northernmost part of Mexico until the Gadsden Purchase.
In the south the forty-niners used the Cooke Wagon Road, until some found a short cut, the Tucson Cutoff. Inas part of an improvement of the route as a military road, a cutoff was built to Cooke's Spring from Mesillapart of Mexico until This route became the Southern Emigrant Trail. During the Gold Rush era it was these routes by which many herds of sheep and cattle were driven to California and the goldfields.
With the passes of the Sierras and the Rocky Mountains blocked in winter, another winter route, the Mormon Road between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles was developed by a Mormon expedition from their new settlements at and around Salt Lake City, and by some Mormon Battalion soldiers returning to Utah in — The first significant use of the route was by parties of Forty-Niners late inand by some Mormon trains, to avoid crossing the snow bound Sierra Nevada Mountains by linking up with the Old Spanish Trail in southern Utah and closely following it, with alterations to the route of the mule trails only to allow wagons to traverse it for the first time.
Soon afterward it was the route Mormon colonists followed to settle southwestern Utah, a mission in Las Vegas and a colony in San Bernardino, California.
This wagon route, also called by some of its early travelers the Southern Route, of the California Trail, remained a minor migration route and in the early s a mail route. After some alterations of the route between Cajon Pass and the border of California and in southern Utah, init became a significant seasonal trade route between California and Utah, untilwhen the transcontinental railroad ended Utah's winter isolation.
Up to 50, people, or one-tenth of the emigrants who attempted the crossing continent, died during the trip, most from infectious disease such as choleraspread by poor sanitation: Hostile confrontations with Native Americansalthough often feared by the emigrants, were comparatively rare, prior to the American Civil War.
Most emigrants traveled in large parties or "trains" of up to several hundred wagons led by a wagon master. In the government published a guidebook written by Captain Randolph B.
Marcycalled The Prairie Traveler, in order to help emigrants prepare for the journey. Pioneered in by William Becknell, it served as a vital commercial highway until the introduction of the railroad to Santa Fe in The conquering of the American west was an important state of mind that drove migration to the west.
Solution Summary. This solution analyzes the reasons for westward expansion in the U.S. after and ways in which the Civil War was the Second American Revolution.
$ Add Solution to Time-Series, and Survival Analysis. Probability. What Made the Americans Expand Westward? 2, words. 4 pages. An Essay on the Benefits of The Louisiana Purchase of An Analysis of the Westward Expansion in America During the s Through s The Western Expansion Has Often Been Regarded as the Central Theme of American History.
4, words. 9 pages. An Introduction to the. Westward Expansion () Overview; Westward Expansion () Summary. Brief Overview; Overview; Timeline; Some Americans ventured westward, but the nation was largely consumed by its struggle to maintain its neutrality in the face of threats from Britain and France.
leaving the United States free to pursue North . Dec 14, · Which of the following was a cause of westward expansion?
Would westward expansion have occurred if America's 13 original colonies had Republican fear peddlers? What were the social, political, and economic causes of westward expansion in the mid s?Status: Resolved.
The Transcontinental Railroad and Westward Expansion Thesis: The transcontinental railroad greatly increased Westward expansion in the United States of America during the .
Examine the causes, course, and consequences of United States westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness (War of , Convention of , Adams-Onis Treaty, Missouri Compromise, Monroe Doctrine, Trail of.