Pascal's Theorem Julia Chew Pascal's favorite mathematical topic to study, geometry, led to the formulation of Pascal's theorem. This states that pairs of opposite sides of a hexagon inscribed in any conic section meet in three collinear points. Pascal published this as Essai pour les Coniques when he was just sixteen years old. He had planned to publish a complete treatise on the subject but somehow, it was never published.

Why do the planets move in an ellipse? This is a very deep question to answer. Kepler, insaid he believed that the orbit of Mars was oval, then later showed empirically that it was an ellipse with the sun at one focus.

The eccentricity of the planetary orbits is small i. InHalley showed that the comet, which is now called after him, moved in an elliptical orbit round the sun.

The eccentricity of Halley's comet is 0. More precisely, Kepler showed that the planets are obeying his three laws of planetary motion see appendix 3 but he had no real physical understanding of why they did so he believed it was a magnetic phenomenon.

It took Newton's genius to explain why. Newton was able to show mathematically that the inverse square law of force his universal law of gravitation leads to motion of one body about another in the path of a conic section i.

The initial values of the position and velocity determine the type of motion. In the case of the planets the motion is that of an ellipse. Of course the planets also perturb one another and so these ellipse gradually rotate and their geometries change, but the motion is always elliptical.

In contrast some of the long period comets may be on parabolic orbits that are not bounded Satellite trajectory.

The orbits of satellites about a central massive body can be described as either circular or elliptical. Most of the mirrors used in telescopes have geometrical figures that one can generate by rotation of two-dimensional conic sections about their axes of symmetry.

Why are conic section mirrors? Paraboloidal mirrors reflect all on-axis parallel light to their focus. Ellipsoidal or hyperboloidal mirrors reflect light that would converge on one focus and make it instead converge on the other focus.

See the following website http: The trajectory of a projectile becomes, neglecting the influence of air resistance, a parabola where the horizontal velocity component is constant and the vertical component is subject to gravity.

Galileo was the first who accurately described projectile motion. He showed that it could be understood by analyzing the horizontal and vertical components separately.

Appendix Menaechmus's cube duplication. Etymological study of the name of conic sections. It is believed that Aristotle who took over the mathematical words that have now become "hyperbola", "ellipse", "parabola" into rhetoric, where they have become ""hyperbole", "elliptic speech" or "ellipsis", and "parable".

First Law Elliptic Orbits: The orbits of the planets around the sun are ellipses with the Sun at one focus. The orbit of any pair of objects are conic section with the center of mass as one focus.

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The line joining the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times as the planet travels around the ellipse. Angular momentum is conserved. Third Law Harmonic Law: The ratio of the squares of the revolutionary periods P for two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their semimajor axis a.

Conic Section in the Bible. There is even Biblical reference to conic sections.

Now he made the sea of cast metal ten cubits from brim to brim, circular in form, and its height was five cubits, and thirty in circumference.

NASB Observe that the value of pi here is being estimated in some sense by 3.Born in France in , Blaise Pascal was the third child and only son of Étienne Pascal. His father did not believe in the French school system so he opted to homeschool his son.

Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist and religious philosopher, who laid the foundation for the modern theory of probabilities. Mathematician Blaise Pascal was born on June 19, In the following part of an essay, the conic sections in taxicab distance are researched, as they must vary from the Euclidean distance as well as circle of taxicab distance from circle of Euclidean distance.

WHAT ARE CONIC SECTIONS the conic section is the locus of a point, such that its distance from focus is in the constant ratio to its. Math Manipulatives (Page 1 of 3): Read a short essay about virtual manipulatives and their role in learning mathematics Virtual Manipulatives on the Web (Page 2 of 3): Below is a list of valuable virtual manipulatives for learning mathematics.; Math Manipulatives (Page 3 of 3): Calculators and PDA resources, including calculator tutorials, activities, software enhancements, and calculator apps.

Here below is a list of the entire set of readings from Britannica's ten-year reading plan. Please note that Adler's year suggested list of readings in Britannica's Great Books is . Philosophy of Science. A few miles farther on, we came to a big, gravelly roadcut that looked like an ashfall, a mudflow, glacial till, and fresh oatmeal, imperfectly blended.

"I don't know what this glop is," [Kenneth Deffeyes] said, in final capitulation.

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Analytic geometry - Wikipedia