Brexit is not the will of the British people — it never has been The referendum vote for Brexit was clear: The UK public actually did not, does not and will not want a Brexit in the foreseeable future. Adrian Low makes this argument by analysing the post-referendum polls and demographic trends.
In Depth Tutorials and Information Anatomy: Head, Thorax, Abdomen, and Genitalia Insects Anatomy is a subdiscipline of morphology concerned with naming and describing the structure of organisms based on gross observation, dissection, and microscopical examination.
Morphology and anatomy are not synonyms. Morphology is concerned with the form and function of anatomical structure; because anatomy is an expression of organic evolution, morphology seeks to investigate possible explanations for organic diversification observed in nature.
Beforeinsect morphology focused on naming and describing anatomical structure. The need for this activity has not diminished, as there is much about insect anatomy remains to be revealed, described, and understood.
This article focuses on the anatomical structures of the three major tagmata of the insect body: A hypothetical ground plan for major structures is given, followed by themes in anatomical variation based on adaptation observed in the Insecta. Most orientation terms are derived from the study of the human body—a body that stands upright—and their application to insects causes confusion.
Some standard terms used with insects include anterior in frontposterior behinddorsal aboveventral belowmedial middleand lateral side. Anatomical description usually follows in the same order; hence, we begin our discussion with the head, move on to the thorax and then the abdomen, and finish with the genitalia.
Description of the relative placement of anatomical features can be cumbersome, but they are critical elements in the study of anatomical structure because relative position is one of the three basic tenets of homology, including size, shape, and embryology.
Measures of Success The design of the insect body can be described as successful for many reasons: The basic insect design allows for adaptation to a variety of environmental requirements. The success of the design is rooted in the nature of the main material used for its construction.
The Building Material When we look at an insect, it is the integument that we see. Structurally, the integument is a multiple-layered, composite organ FIGURE 1 Fossil insects are easily recognizable today, indicating an early establishment of a successful design.
The ultrastructure of the integument is composed of living cells and the secretory products of those cells. Each layer is of a different thickness and chemical composition, and each displays physical properties different from those of the surrounding layers.
Perhaps more importantly, the integument is also the organ with the greatest diversity of structure and function.
There are two common misconceptions about the integument. First, some believe chitin is responsible for integument in the soft and flexible membranous parts of the integument than in the hard, sclerotized plates. Integument hardness is attributed to an increased number of cross-linkages between protein chains contained in the integument layers.
Second, some believe that the integument is rigid and that growth is incremental and limited to expansion during molting; yet, some endopterygote insects are able to grow continuously between molts.
The integument determines the shape of the insect body and its appendages.
One of the most captivating features of insects is their seemingly infinite variation in body shapes—everything from a simple bag Hymenoptera grub to a mimic of orchid flowers Mantidae.
Similarly, appendage shape is exceedingly plastic. Leg shapes are similarly highly variable and express functional modifications.
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Finally, wing shapes are highly variable among insects and are determined by body size and shape as well as by aerodynamic considerations. Tagmata Most people recognize the three tagmata—head, thorax, and abdomen—as characteristic of insects.
The way they appear is rooted in a division of responsibilities. The head is for orientation, ingestion, and cognitive process; the thorax for locomotion; and the abdomen for digestion and reproduction.
But even casual observations reveal further divisions of these body regions. Segmentation of the Tagmata Two types of segmentation are evident among arthropods, primary and secondary.
Primary segmentation is characteristic of soft-bodied organisms such as larval holometabolans. The body wall in these organisms is punctuated by grooves or rings that surround the anterior and posterior margins of each somite.
These rings represent intersegmental lines of the body wall and define the limits of each somite.In Eve Bunting's, 'Jumping The Nail', teenagers in La Paloma, California, are taking the jump of a lifetime off the foot tall 'nail'.
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