As far back in ancient Greek literature as Homer, the concept of dikaion, used to describe a just person, was important. From this emerged the general concept of dikaiosune, or justice, as a virtue that might be applied to a political society. The issue of what does and does not qualify as just could logically lead to controversy regarding the origin of justice, as well as that concerning its essence. In his trial, Socrates was at pains to dissociate himself from them, after his conviction refusing to save himself, as a typical Sophist would, by employing an act of civil disobedience to escape Dialogues, pp.
The arguments in the two essays overlap a great deal. In fact, The Open Society began as a chapter for Poverty. Yet there is a difference in emphasis. The Open Society, a much longer and, according to Popper, a more important work, included in-depth discussion of historicism and the methods of the social sciences.
But it also featured an inquiry into the psychological and historical origins of totalitarianism, which he located in the nexus of a set of appealing but, he argued, false ideas. Open versus Closed Societies According to Plato versus aristotle essay, totalitarianism was not unique to the 20th century.
But reactionary forces were unnerved by the instability and rapid social change that an open society had unleashed. Socrates was indicted on charges of corrupting the youth and introducing new gods. In contrast, the individualism, freedom and personal responsibility that open societies necessarily engender leave many feeling isolated and anxious, but this anxiety, Popper said, must be born if we are to enjoy the greater benefits of living in an open society: Popper charged that Plato emerged as the philosophical champion of the closed society and in the process laid the groundwork for totalitarianism.
Betraying the open and critical temper of his mentor Socrates, in his Republic Plato devised an elaborate system that would arrest all political and social change and turn philosophy into an enforcer, rather than a challenger, of authority. It would also reverse the tide of individualism and egalitarianism that had emerged in democratic Athens, establishing a hierarchical system in which the freedom and rights of the individual Plato versus aristotle essay be sacrificed to the collective needs of society.
Spartan society focused almost exclusively on two goals: Toward these ends, the Spartan constitution sought to create a hive-like, martial society that always favored the needs of the collective over the individual and required a near total control over its citizenry. This included a primitive eugenics, in which newborn infants deemed insufficiently vigorous were tossed into a pit of water.
Spartan males judged healthy enough to merit life were separated from their families at a young age and provided an education consisting mainly of military training.
The training produced fearsome warriors who were indifferent to suffering, submissive to authority, and unwaveringly loyal to the city. Fighting for the city was an honor granted solely to the male citizenry, while the degrading toil of cultivating the land was the lot reserved to an enslaved tribe of fellow Greeks, the helots.
Rigid censorship was imposed on the citizenry, as well as laws that strictly limited contact with foreigners. Under this system, Sparta became a dominant military power in ancient Greece, but, unsurprisingly, made no significant contributions to the arts and sciences.
It was no coincidence, he said, that the Nazis and other modern-day totalitarians were also inspired by the Spartans. These ideas were holism, essentialism, and historicism. Holism may be defined as the view that adequate understanding of certain kinds of entities requires understanding them as a whole.
This is often held to be true for biological and social systems, for example, an organism, an ecosystem, an economy, or a culture. For instance, some philosophers argue that human consciousness is an emergent phenomenon whose properties cannot be explained solely by the properties of the physical components nerve cells, neurotransmitters, and so forth that comprise the human brain.
Similarly, those who advocate a holistic approach to social inquiry argue that social entities cannot be reduced to the properties of the individuals that comprise them. That is, they reject methodological individualism and support methodological holism, as Popper called it.
According to Popper, Plato believed that a just society required individuals to sacrifice their needs to the interests of the state.
Popper saw this as profoundly dangerous. In fact, he said, the view that some collective social entity—be it, for example, a city, a state, society, a nation, or a race—has needs that are prior and superior to the needs of actual living persons is a central ethical tenet of all totalitarian systems, whether ancient or modern.
Nazis, for instance, emphasized the needs of the Aryan race to justify their brutal policies, whereas communists in the Soviet Union spoke of class aims and interests as the motor of history to which the individual must bend.
The needs of the race or class superseded the needs of individuals. In contrast, Popper held, members of an open society see the state and other social institutions as human designed, subject to rational scrutiny, and always serving the interests of individuals—and never the other way around.
According to Plato, understanding of any kind of thing—for example, a bed, a triangle, a human being, or a city—requires understanding what Plato called its Form.
The Forms are timeless, unchanging and perfect exemplars of sensible things found in our world.Two of the greatest and earliest thinkers of our time are Plato, and his most famous pupil, Aristotle.
Soon after Plato’s teachings, Aristotle criticized his claims and independently became a thinker on his own. In ancient Greece two great written philosophers lived.
First there was Plato and then Aristotle. Aristotle was a pupil of Plato. Despite being taught by Plato they had different theories and views.
|Preliminaries||The titles in this list are those in most common use today in English-language scholarship, followed by standard abbreviations in parentheses. For no discernible reason, Latin titles are customarily employed in some cases, English in others.|
|What's New||Justice is Better than Injustice.|
|Plato’s Circle in the Mosaic of Pompeii||Plato[ edit ] Both Plato and Aristotle saw in mimesis the representation of natureincluding human nature, as reflected in the dramas of the period.|
|Holistic Solutions for Authentic Learning||What sphinx of cement and aluminum bashed open their skulls and ate up their brains and imagination?|
|An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.||It persisted as the dominant approach in Western moral philosophy until at least the Enlightenment, suffered a momentary eclipse during the nineteenth century, but re-emerged in Anglo-American philosophy in the late s. Neither of them, at that time, paid attention to a number of topics that had always figured in the virtue ethics tradition—virtues and vices, motives and moral character, moral education, moral wisdom or discernment, friendship and family relationships, a deep concept of happiness, the role of the emotions in our moral life and the fundamentally important questions of what sorts of persons we should be and how we should live.|
Their ethics were very typical and traditional of ancient Greece but Aristotle detailed virtue ethics. Read this essay on Plato vs. Aristotle. Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays.
Get the knowledge you need in order to pass your classes and more. Only at vetconnexx.com". Contrast to diegesis. It was also Plato and Aristotle who contrasted mimesis with diegesis (Greek διήγησις).
Mimesis shows, rather than tells, by means of directly represented action that is vetconnexx.comis, however, is the telling of the story by a narrator; the author narrates action indirectly and describes what is in the characters' minds and emotions.
Aristotle on the other hand believed that everything was right here on earth and one could find the Form if one developed a scientific method to apprehend it.
I believe the Forms which Plato believed in were not real. Winner of the Journal of the History of Ideas's Morris D. Forkosch prize This book traces treatments of the relationship between God's being and activity from Aristotle, through the pagan Neoplatonists, and into thinkers such as Augustine, Boethius, and Aquinas (in the West) and Dionysius the Areopagite, Maximus the Confessor, and Gregory Palamas (in the East).