The mid-air bombing of a Somali passenger jet in February was a wake-up call for security agencies and those working in the field of explosive detection. It was also a reminder that terrorist groups from Yemen to Syria to East Africa continue to explore innovative ways to get bombs onto passenger jets by trying to beat detection systems or recruit insiders. The layered state-of-the-art detection systems that are now in place at most airports in the developed world make it very hard for terrorists to sneak bombs onto planes, but the international aviation sector remains vulnerable because many airports in the developing world either have not deployed these technologies or have not provided rigorous training for operators. Technologies and security measures will need to improve to stay one step ahead of innovative terrorists.
Western scholarship and literature generally devalued and deprecated the astonishing management prowess and practices of early African civilizations, as evidenced, for example, in the building of the great Egyptian pyramids.
These foreign management systems generally failed to achieve the expected goals as they discountenanced African cultural inertia and social milieu. Gbadamosi aptly notes that: The colonial regimes in Africa created both administrative bureaucracies and colonial companies to exploit the vast natural resources of the continent.
A workforce was created made up of the best African brains and trained in western management principles and practices to supply energies for the colonial establishments. The colonial training has not created the salubrious conditions for nurturing African indigenous management practices.
There was an erosion of African management thought system. Africans, for example, have been skilful managers have a systematic approach based on historical and practical experience to move from the real to the ideal Osuntokun, Any management education programme that facilitates the entrenchment of western management theories and practices in Africa is not desirable.
This can further create the opportunity for the development of indigenous African management principles and practices, which will recognize and accommodate our cultural social, political and environmental factors.
This paper presents the thesis that there is extant knowledge of African management practices and philosophy, which apparently western scholarship deprecates and in its stead, imposes on the continent foreign, western management principles, theories and practices.
The challenges of developing indigenous theories and the obvious consequences of this transfer of management knowledge to Africa are discussed. The paper finally advocates an agenda for developing indigenous African management theories and practices that will help advance the course of development in the continent.
Africa as part of the global community has existed in her own unique ways and unique cultures and managed the environment subsistently throughout history. The quiet of this environment was extensively disrupted in the 19th century when the Europeans scrambled for and partitioned Africa.
African management thought was a major culprit of these western influences. Management literature, which bourgeoned in the west paid scant attention to African civilization, which was no doubt driven by African management prowess.
A few of the western textbooks that discussed management history acknowledge the great pyramids in Egypt as depicting early outstanding management activities in Africa.
Griffin notes that: These great pyramids, which were built in B. It is interesting to note that one pyramid requiredmen, working for 20 years, covering 13 acres, using 2. In fact, an even more astonishing description of Egyptian management prowess, is presented by George While their system of organization may appear unwieldy, cumbersome, and even wasteful, they actually had no reasons to economize on labour since more peasants, mercenaries, and slaves were always available simply for the asking … We find also that the Egyptians were aware of sound managerial practices and principles.
The authors went further to distinguish between management practice and management knowledge by stating: Arguments of this nature fail to recognize the fact that both management practice and management knowledge are not mutually exclusive, and they are required as they provide necessary conditions for nurturing well-grounded management knowledge in our society today.
The astonishing Egyptian management practice is a strong and evident system that would have served as a precursor to the evolution and development of indigenous African management theory and practices, if allowed to grow organically without interference from the western management theories.
Formal treatment of the history of management theories and practices among western scholars are wont to trace their provenance to classical theories and scientific management theory or Taylorism eg.
These textbooks and publications make no reference to other great ancient civilizations in Africa like Timbuktu, Songhai, Empire of Mali, and Mapungunbwe Diop, The composite effect of colonialism and the disparagement of scholarship in management is the denial of African management system, and the continuing subjugation of African management to western management theories and practices.
The early management activities in Africa were no doubt based on sound principles, which serve the foundation for management theories and practices.
These basic concepts in management are presented here in the context of developing indigenous African management philosophy.Developing models that accurately describe pathogen evolution is inherently challenging because of the complexity of pathogen life cycles and the difficulty in characterizing the (dynamic) fitness landscapes driving pathogen evolution.
Keyword: African Management Philosophy, Ubuntu, Africa, New Management Techniques, Management Theories, Management Practices, Management PrinciplesScholarly conceptualization from Europe and the United States of America concerning management in Africa have tended to disparage its development, creating a binary management systems of “developed” western management theories . 1 — Working Group Outbrief — Challenges in Developing and Acquiring Systems with Evolving Requirements Session 10F Session Chairs . the challenges of evolving and developing indigenous management theories and practices in africa ABSTRACT The evolution and development of indigenous management theories and practices in Africa has been seriously affected and retarded by colonialism.
advocate the evolution and development of indigenous African manage ment theories and practices. This advocacy is This advocacy is presented in the next section.
The evolution and development of indigenous management theories and practices in Africa has been seriously affected and retarded by colonialism.
The colonial administration introduced western management theories and practices, considered as the drivers and the panacea for the continent’s socio-politico-economic development. How Raytheon Meets the Challenge of Developing Systems with Evolving Requirements. 14 Asya Campbell Ms.
Campbell is a Systems Director, EHF Systems MILSATCOM Division at The Aerospace Corporation. In that position Ms. Campbell is responsible for the design and development of the ground segment for the Advanced EHF.
The Challenges of Evolving and Developing Management Indigenous Theories and Practices in Africa. The Challenges of Evolving and Developing.
Evolving and developing African management.
The Evolving Challenges for Explosive Detection in the Aviation Sector and Beyond May , Volume 9, Issue 5. but the international aviation sector remains vulnerable because many airports in the developing world either have not deployed these technologies or have not provided rigorous training for operators.
While capabilities .