There were many changes in the social customs and day-to-day life of millions of Americans during the administration of President Calvin Coolidge. As we saw in our last program, many young people began to challenge the traditions of their parents and grandparents. They experimented with new ideas and ways of living.
The European background The English colonization of North America was but one chapter in the larger story of European expansion throughout the globe.
The Portuguesebeginning with a voyage to Porto Santo off the coast of West Africa inwere the first Europeans to promote overseas exploration and colonization. By the Portuguese had traveled all the way to the southern tip of Africa, establishing trading stations at ArguinSierra Leoneand El Mina.
First in the Caribbean and then in spectacular conquests of New Spain and Peruthey captured the imagination, and the envy, of the European world. Architect of the Capitol Franceoccupied with wars in Europe to preserve its own territorial integritywas not able to devote as much time or effort to overseas expansion as did Spain and Portugal.
Beginning in the early 16th century, however, French fishermen established an outpost in Newfoundlandand in Jacques Cartier began exploring the Gulf of St.
By the French had ceased their efforts to colonize the northeast portion of the New World. In the last half of the 16th century, France attempted to found colonies in Florida and Brazilbut each of these efforts failed, and by the end of the century Spain and Portugal remained the only two European nations to have established successful colonies in America.
Cartier, JacquesThis map details the first two voyages of Jacques Cartier. The Englishalthough eager to duplicate the Spanish and Portuguese successes, nevertheless lagged far behind in their colonization efforts.
The English possessed a theoretical claim to the North American mainland by dint of the voyage of John Cabot off the coast of Nova Scotiabut in fact they had neither the means nor the desire to back up that claim during the 16th century. Thus it was that England relied instead on private trading companies, which were interested principally in commercial rather than territorial expansion, to defend its interests in the expanding European world.
The first of these commercial ventures began with the formation of the Muscovy Company in In Sir Francis Drake made his famous voyage around the world, plundering the western coast of South America en route.
A year later Sir Humphrey Gilbertone of the most dedicated of Elizabethan imperialists, began a series of ventures aimed at establishing permanent colonies in North America.
All his efforts met with what was, at best, limited success. Finally, in SeptemberGilbert, with five vessels and men, disappeared in the North Atlantic.
John Cabot landing on the shores of Labrador, coloured engraving by an unknown artist, 19th century. Even men such as the English geographer Richard Hakluyt were not certain that the Spanish colonization experience could or should be imitated but hoped nevertheless that the English colonies in the New World would prove to be a source of immediate commercial gain.
There were, of course, other motives for colonization. English imperialists thought it necessary to settle in the New World in order to limit Spanish expansion. Once it was proved that America was a suitable place for settlement, some Englishmen would travel to those particular colonies that promised to free them from religious persecution.
There were also Englishmen, primarily of lower- and middle-class origin, who hoped the New World would provide them with increased economic opportunity in the form of free or inexpensive land.
These last two motives, while they have been given considerable attention by historians, appear not to have been so much original motives for English colonization as they were shifts of attitude once colonization had begun.
Settlement Virginia The leaders of the Virginia Companya joint-stock company in charge of the Jamestown enterprise, were for the most part wealthy and wellborn commercial and military adventurers eager to find new outlets for investment.
During the first two years of its existence, the Virginia colony, under the charter ofproved an extraordinarily bad investment.
This was principally due to the unwillingness of the early colonizers to do the necessary work of providing for themselves and to the chronic shortage of capital to supply the venture. JamestownJamestown Fort in Virginia U.
As a result, the enterprise still failed to yield any profits, and the number of investors again declined. The crown issued a third charter inauthorizing the company to institute a lottery to raise more capital for the floundering enterprise. In that same year, John Rolfe harvested the first crop of a high-grade and therefore potentially profitable strain of tobacco.
At about the same time, with the arrival of Sir Thomas Dale in the colony as governor inthe settlers gradually began to practice the discipline necessary for their survival, though at an enormous personal cost. Each person in Virginia, including women and children, was given a military rank, with duties spelled out in minute detail.
Penalties imposed for violating these rules were severe:Ministers, like James Cleveland, made tours with their choruses, in the United States and abroad.
In the late s and early s, before and during rallies for Civil Rights, demonstrators sang negro vetconnexx.com A People's History of the United States has , ratings and 4, reviews. Mike (the Paladin) said: Update: I took this out of the library to attempt.
· 5 of the Most Influential Protests in History. more than 60, Indians were arrested for breaking the salt law. It was an ideal method of protest, because collecting salt was a completely non vetconnexx.com United States - The Kennedy and Johnson administrations: During the campaign Kennedy had stated that America was “on the edge of a New Frontier”; in his inaugural speech he spoke of “a new generation of Americans”; and during his presidency he seemed to be taking government in a new direction, away from the easygoing Eisenhower style.
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· African American spirituals, gospel, and folk music all played an important role in the Civil Rights Movement.
|Culture Name||In centuries past this statement would have seemed self-evident. Ancient cultures devoted much time and effort to teaching their children family history.|
|Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA)||Along with churches, political and service organizations, cultural institutions, and schools and universities, the black press has been central to community formation, protest and advocacy, education and literacy, and economic self-sufficiency.|
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