Visit Website This effectively calmed simmering tensions between peoples of the two faiths within the Holy Roman Empire for more than 60 years, although there were flare ups, including the Cologne War and the War of the Julich Succession Visit Website Still, the Holy Roman Empire may have controlled much of Europe at the time, though it was essentially a collection of semi-autonomous states or fiefdoms. The emperor, from the House of Habsburg, had limited authority over their governance. The so-called Defenestration of Prague fenestration:
The town council members had refused to exchange their Hussite prisoners. Once inside the hall, the group defenestrated the judge, the burgomasterand several members of the town council.
They were all killed by the fall. These preachers urged their congregations to action, including taking up arms, to combat these perceived transgressions. The wars broke out shortly afterward and lasted until Note the monument to the right of the castle tower.
Inthe Peace of Augsburg had settled religious disputes in the Holy Roman Empire by enshrining the principle of Cuius regio, eius religioallowing a prince to determine the religion of his subjects.
The Kingdom of Bohemia since had been governed by Habsburg Kings, who did not force their Catholic religion on their largely Protestant subjects. He was increasingly viewed as unfit to govern, and other members of the Habsburg dynasty declared his younger brother, Matthiasto be family head in Matthias began to gradually wrest territory from Rudolf, beginning with Hungary.
Into strengthen his hold on Bohemia, Rudolf issued the Letter of Majestywhich granted Bohemia's largely Protestant estates the right to freely exercise their religion, essentially setting up a Protestant Bohemian state church controlled by the estates, "dominated by the towns and rural nobility".
Matthias, already aging and without children, made his cousin Ferdinand of Styria his heir and had him elected king in Ferdinand was a proponent of the Catholic Counter-Reformation and not likely to be well-disposed to Protestantism or Bohemian freedoms.
Bohemian Protestants opposed the royal government as they interpreted the Letter of Majesty to extend not only to the land controlled by the nobility or self-governing towns but also to the King's own lands. Whereas Matthias and Klesl were prepared to appease these demands, Ferdinand was not; in he forced the Emperor to order the cessation of construction of some Protestant chapels on royal land.
When the Bohemian estates protested against this order, Ferdinand had their assembly dissolved. After preparing the meeting hall, members of the dissolved assembly of the three main Protestant estates gathered at 9: The Protestant lords' agenda was to clarify whether the four regents present were responsible for persuading the Emperor to order the cessation of Protestant church construction on royal lands.
According to Martinice himself: Lord Paul Rziczan read aloud His Imperial Majesty had sent to their graces the lord regents a sharp letter that was, by our request, issued to us as a copy after the original had been read aloud, and in which His Majesty declared all of our lives and honour already forfeit, thereby greatly frightening all three Protestant estates.
As they also absolutely intended to proceed with the execution against us, we came to a unanimous agreement among ourselves that, regardless of any loss of life and limb, honour and property, we would stand firm, with all for one and one for all Because, however, it is clear that such a letter came about through the advice of some of our religious enemies, we wish to know, and hereby ask the lord regents present, if all or some of them knew of the letter, recommended it, and approved of it.
If they were given the opportunity, the Protestants were to receive an official answer to their grievance by the next Friday the encounter took place on the eve of Ascension Day, and they all had to observe the holy day.
The Protestant lords, however, demanded an immediate answer. Two regents, Adam II von Sternberg and Matthew Leopold Popel Lobcowitz, were declared innocent by the Protestant Estate holders, deemed to be too pious to have any responsibility in the preparation of the Emperor's letter.
They were removed from the room; before leaving, Adam II von Sternberg made it clear that they "did not advise anything that was contrary to the Letter of Majesty".
They eventually acknowledged responsibility for the letter and, presuming they would only be arrested, welcomed any punishment the Protestants had planned.
Count von Thurn turned to both Martinice and Slavata and said "you are enemies of us and of our religion, have desired to deprive us of our Letter of Majesty, have horribly plagued your Protestant subjects Then to the crowd of Protestants, he continued "were we to keep these men alive, then we would lose the Letter of Majesty and our religion Shortly thereafter, the two Regents and their secretary were defenestrated, but they survived the foot metre fall from the third floor.
Philip Fabricius was later ennobled by the emperor and granted the title Baron von Hohenfall literally "Baron of Highfall". Because they deposed a properly chosen king, the Protestants could not gather the international support they needed for war. This became known as the first battle in the Thirty Years' War.
Several months later, twenty-seven nobles and citizens were tortured and executed in the Old Town Square. Twelve of their heads were impaled on iron hooks and hung from the Bridge Tower as a warning. This also contributed to catalyzing the Thirty Years' War.
A defenestration chronologically the second defenestration of Prague, sometimes called one-and-halfth defenestration happened on 24 Septemberwhen a violent overthrow of the municipal governments of the Old and New Towns ended with throwing the Old-Town portreeve and the bodies of seven killed aldermen out of the windows of the respective town halls.
Sometimes, the name the third defenestration of Prague is used, although it has no standard meaning. For example, it has been used  to describe the death of Jan Masarykwho was found below the bathroom window of the building of the Czechoslovak Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 10 March The official report listed the death as a suicide.The Treaty of Westphalia is signed, ending the Thirty Years War and radically shifting the balance of power in Europe.
The Thirty Years War, a series of wars fought by European nations for various.
Nov 09, · Watch video · Legacy of the Thirty Years’ War ; Sources ; The Thirty Years’ War was a 17th-century religious conflict fought primarily in central Europe. The Thirty Years’ War is a name given by historians to a series of conflicts in Central Europe, which occurred in the years Today it is estimated to be one of the lengthiest and most violent conflicts in European history.
Just two years after the defenestration, Ferdinand and the Catholics regained power in the Battle of White Mountain on November 8, This became known as the first battle in the Thirty Years' War. Peace of Westphalia, European settlements of , which brought to an end the Eighty Years’ War between Spain and the Dutch and the German phase of the Thirty Years’ War.
The peace was negotiated, from , in the Westphalian towns of . Video: The Thirty Years' War & the Peace of Westphalia: Summary & Significance In this lesson we explore the Thirty Years' War and the subsequent Peace of Westphalia.